U.S. Citizens killed by Illegal Aliens
Twelve Americans are murdered every day by illegal aliens, according to 2006 statistics released by Rep. Steve King, R-Iowa. If those numbers are correct, it translates to 4,380 Americans murdered annually by illegal aliens more than the U.S. death toll of soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan combined. That's more than 30,000 Americans killed by illegal aliens since Sept. 11, 2001.
Studies have found that illegal immigration causes substantial human costs to American citizens and legal immigrants. Those that are particularly vulnerable are children, women and minorities. According to the 2006 House Committee on Homeland Security Border Report, every year an estimated 4,300 American citizens lose their lives by an illegal immigrant. Several thousands of senseless deaths could have been prevented if our federal, state and local law enforcement would enforce our immigration laws and secure the border. The Violent Crimes Institute estimated that there are 240,000 illegal immigrant sex offenders in the United States, which averages about four victims each. There are many victims that our Congress has failed to protect and accepts as collateral damage. Substantiating the human cost, the Department of Homeland Security estimates that illegal immigrants molest more than 2,900 children. How many more thousands of children will be victimized until we speak up for them? For fair and open debate on the impact of illegal immigration, we cannot ignore the human costs to American citizens or accept it as collateral damage. It is time for our U.S. Reps. to listen to their constituents to secure the border and to NOT give anyone that is here illegally ANY TYPE OF AMNESTY.
It is time to get off our ass and call all our representatives. Tell them to secure our borders and no amnesty to anyone that is here illegally. To get info about all our representatives go to www.fixingamerica.net
Arizona had the second highest proportion in the country of illegal immigrants in its population in 2000. The estimate by the Immigration and Naturalization Service was that there were 283,000 aliens residing illegally in the state. That represented more than 5.5 percent of the state's population. As recently as 1996, the INS estimated that the resident illegal alien population in the state was 115,000 persons a nearly 150 percent increase in just four years. This estimate does not include about 83,000 persons who were also part of Arizona's illegal alien population until they were given legal residence as a result of the 1986 amnesty.
Not only has Arizona's illegal alien population grown rapidly, the overall foreignborn population has shot up since the 1965 change in U.S. immigration law. Similarly, the size of the immigrant stock (which includes the offspring of immigrants as well as the immigrants themselves) has surged. Both of these groups contribute to the costs of illegal immigration. The progeny of immigrants both legally and illegally in the country is now greater than the foreign-born population (see chart).
This study looks at the fiscal costs and tax payments associated with illegal immigration. It does not look at the goods and services produced by illegal alien workers, i.e., their economic contribution, as it may be assumed that if illegal immigrants were unavailable the same labor, if essential, would be done by legal workers.
Similarly, this study does not include the displacement costs incurred by legal
Analysis of the latest Census data indicates that Arizona's illegal immigrant population is costing the state's taxpayers about $1.3 billion per year for education, medical care and incarceration. Even if the estimated tax contributions of illegal immigrant workers are subtracted, net outlays still amount to more than $1 billion per year. The annual fiscal burden borne by Arizonans amounts to more than $700 per household headed by a native-born resident.
This analysis looks specifically at the costs of education, health care and incarceration because they represent the largest cost areas and because a 1994 study conducted by the Urban Institute, which also examined these same costs, provides a useful baseline for comparison ten years later.
Other studies have been conducted in the interim, showing trends that support the conclusions of this report. As this report will note, other significant costs associated with illegal immigration exist and should be taken into account by federal and state officials. But even without accounting for all of the multitude of areas in which costs are being incurred by Arizona taxpayers, the programs analyzed in this study indicate that the burden is substantial and that the costs are rapidly increasing.
The $1.3 billion in costs incurred by Arizona taxpayers is comprised of outlays in the following areas:
Illegal Alien Medical Costs
Uncompensated medical outlays for health care provided to the state's illegal alien population is now estimated at about $400 million a year.
Medical costs are incurred when an alien's health is affected while illegally entering the country. Some of these costs were compensated in the past, and legislation has been introduced to restart the compensation program, but at present the costs are uncompensated.
Additional unpaid medical expenses may be incurred from accidents while illegal immigrants are being smuggled or otherwise trying to get to interior locations.
Aliens illegally residing in the country, usually with no medical insurance, generally turn to emergency medical facilities for their treatment.
Well-baby maternity care and delivery expenses are incurred for illegal alien women. Other maternity expenses may also be attributable to illegal immigration if the father is illegally in the United States.
The Urban Institute's 1994 calculation of the unreimbursed expense to the state for emergency medical services was a range of $6.6 to 9.6 million. This was higher than the state's estimate of $3.9 million for emergency medical services. A similar calculation today would yield a very different estimate.
The Urban Institute based its estimate of uncompensated medical outlays by Arizona taxpayers based on data collected by the federal government in the State Legalization Impact Assistance Grants (SLIAG) program. That program, authorized and funded by Congress, helped states cope with the additional services they were required to provide as a result of the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act amnesty for nearly 3 million illegal alien residents.
The Urban Institute researchers thought that the SLIAG model might overstate the use of uncompensated medical outlays for the non-legalized population because they might be reluctant to seek publicly-funded emergency medical care. Nevertheless, their cost estimate of the cost was based on their estimates of the size of the illegal immigrant population and the costs of emergency medical care per person at that time.
As we showed above, the estimated illegal alien population in 2004 in Arizona is more than seven times larger today than it was ten years ago in the Urban Institute estimate. This implies conservatively that the Urban Institute's estimated emergency medical outlays would be about $48-$70 million today if costs were constant, which, of course, they are not. If those medical expenses were adjusted for inflation, they would be about $59.4-$86.6 million today.
A study released in September 2002 by the U.S.- Mexico Border Counties Coalition (BCC), a group of local and state government leaders from border communities, estimated that illegal immigrants racked up $190 million in unpaid bills at 77 border hospitals in 2000.
The figure did not include Maricopa County, which estimates its costs at more than $50 million. According to the American Medical Association, the true cost of the care provided to these immigrants might be substantially higher, because services delivered by a physician in a hospital's emergency department that were not billed through the hospital were not captured by the study.
Although the BCC study covered the four Arizona border counties and Maricopa County's own study provides additional relevant data, it did not cover Pinal County (part of the Phoenix-Mesa metropolitan area) or another ten counties.
We judge that the Border Counties study, that includes uncompensated medical costs for most of the population center of the state, and is based on actual reported expenditures, provides a more useful basis for our estimate than that done by the Urban Institute.
If the BCC's and Maricopa's $240 million cost were updated to 2004 based on a significantly increased estimate of the number of illegal immigrants (half-again as many) and higher medical costs (7% higher) and for outlays in the rest of the state (one-tenth higher), that amount would increase to more than $400 million per year for the state.
Legislation enacted in 1996 authorized funding to partially defray the unpaid costs of treating illegal immigrants. An appropriation that fulfilled that commitment ceased in 2001. While legislation to restart that program has been introduced into the current Congress, there is no offsetting funding at the present time, and even while the program was available, it only partially compensated local governments and medical facilities for their out-ofpocket expenses.
Other estimates of current uncompensated medical outlays vary widely. According to a spokesperson for the Protect Arizona Now movement, Arizona's hospitals report $1.4 billion a year in losses to uncompensated care.
Illegal Alien Education Costs
Based on estimates of the illegal immigrant population in Arizona and documented costs of K-12 schooling, Arizonans spend approximately $810 million annually on education for illegal immigrant children and for their U.S.-born siblings.
Not much attention is paid to the tremendous costs of mandates imposed on states and local governments that must provide care to a swelling number of non-citizens within their borders. Yet those costs ultimately take a human toll, too. Every tax dollar spent on emergency care or criminal justice for an illegal immigrant has to be paid for by American taxpayers. Senator John Ky,
Educational outlays for illegal immigrants incurred by public schools for enrolled illegal alien children are a clear-cut expenditure of taxpayer funds due to illegal immigration. The bulk of those expenditures are from state and local budgets.
Other related expenses result from the education of the U.S.-born children of illegal aliens.Further outlays accrue from the added expenses that result from Limited English Proficiency (LEP) programs, e.g., staff salaries and foreign language teaching materials.
Still more expenses result if the foreign student is poor and participates in a school-based nutrition program, i.e., the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School Breakfast Program's (SBP).
The large number of s chool-age illegal immigrants contribute to costs for parental liaison, translation at PTA meetings, and newsletters printed in Spanish.
While Arizona does not openly allow illegal immigrants to enroll as residents in the state's higher education institutions, there presumably are such students, and the tuition subsidy borne by the taxpayer is an additional cost.
Cost of Educating the Illegal Immigrant K12 Population
The Urban Institute's 1994 calculation of the cost of K-12 education in Arizona was based on a per student cost of about $3,667. This was about 20 percent lower than the cost estimate of the State.
If costs remained constant, the Urban Institute's estimate of outlays on the education of the 2004 population of illegal alien students would have risen from $55 million to a present cost of about $202 million and the costs of educating the children of illegal aliens born in the United States would be about $293.4 million. However, educational outlays have not remained constant.
The FAIR research report on educational outlays for illegal immigrant education used the $4,999 average per pupil cost in Arizona compiled by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) for the 1999-2000 school year and calculated the cost of educating illegal immigrant students in Arizona in 2000 to be about $187 million. 15 This was 17.5 percent higher than the estimate used by the Urban Institute in its 1994 study.
Public educational expenses since 2000 have continued to rise. NCES data indicate that between the 1999-2000 school year and the 2001-2002 school years the expenses in Arizona rose between 6.7 percent and 15.4 percent. Extending this trend through the 2003-2004 school year would make public education outlays at least 20 percent higher than they were in 2000.
Thus, outlays in 2004 would be about $6,000 per pupil. In addition, using an average cost factor probably underestimates the costs associated with the illegal resident population. As the authors of the 1994 Urban Institute study explained, We believe that undocumented aliens are more likely than other students to live in urban areas where per student expenses are relatively high.
Using the updated estimate of the illegal K-12 immigrant population and the estimated per pupil expenditure results in a current estimated cost to Arizona's taxpayers of at least $330 million per year.
Using the same per pupil cost estimate for the U.S.-born children of illegal aliens indicates that the additional expense of educating these children through the 12 th grade is at least an additional $480 million per year or a total annual educational cost from illegal immigration of at least $810 million per year.
Illegal Alien Welfair Costs
Illegal immigrants generally have low earnings that would qualify them for state welfare assistance, which, unlike federal benefits, is not precluded by Arizona's screening system.
To enroll for Arizona state benefits, the applicant need only indicate on the application that he or she is a U.S. citizen or legal resident. As a result there are illegal aliens receiving welfare benefits in Arizona on their own behalf or in the name of their U.S.-born children. A measure passed by the Arizona state legislature requiring an investigation of welfare payments to illegal aliens has been thwarted by the failure of legislative leaders to establish the task force to conduct the study.
A study of w e l f a re payments to illegal immigrants nationwide by the Center for Immigration Studies concluded that average non-medical welfare payments to illegal-immigrant headed households averaged $151 per year. 7 For Arizona, that would amount to about $15 million per year.
American workers who are displaced by illegal workers willing to accept lower wages may qualify for a number of programs paid for by the taxpayer. In Arizona, those costs were estimated to cost of about $175 million per year in 1992 and would be significantly higher today.
Illegal Alien Incarceration Costs
The cost of incarcerating illegal aliens in Arizona prisons and jails amounts to about $80 million a year (not including the monetary costs of the crimes that led to their incarceration). The unauthorized immigrant population pays some state and local taxes that go toward offsetting these costs, but they do not come near to matching the expenses. The total of such payments might generously be estimated at $257 million per year.
The fiscal costs of illegal immigration do not end with these three major cost items. The total costs of illegal immigration to the state's taxpayers would be considerably higher if other costs such as special English instruction, school nutrition programs, or welfare benefits for American workers displaced by illegal alien workers were added into the equation.
2004 OUTLAYS AND RECEIPTS
C a t e g o r y O u t l a y s R e c e i p t s Net Cost
E d u c a t i o n
Illegal Aliens $330,000,000
Children of Illegal Aliens 480,000,000
Uncompensated Medical Care 400,000,000
Tax Payments 257,000,000
Another major cost borne by Arizona taxpayers results from incarcerated illegal aliens. These aliens may have been apprehended entering the country after prior deportation or have committed serious crimes while residing in Arizona. If they are tried on state charges, the state pays for the investigation, prosecution, translation and interpreter services, judicial management, incarceration and possible parole costs.
The federal government provides partial compensation of those costs only if it accepts responsibility for removing the aliens from the country upon release. Another major cost borne by Arizona taxpayers results from incarcerated illegal aliens.
Apart from incarceration, law enforcement costs also are incurred in prevention and enforcement and in the judicial process for crimes committed by illegal aliens. The illegal immigrant population contributes to the growing burden for providing an array of services in Spanish interpretation and translation, especially in the health care, law enforcement and judicial systems.
(AZ) Thomas: 19% of county's felons are illegal immigrants
Thomas: 19% of county's felons are illegal immigrants
County Attorney Andrew Thomas on Thursday released a study indicating that illegal immigrants comprised nearly 19 percent of those sentenced for felonies in Maricopa County in 2007, even though illegal immigrants only make up an estimated 9 percent of the county's population.
The numbers, which were generated by the County Attorney's Office, reinforce popular beliefs about illegal immigration and crime but contradict the findings of some sociologists and journalists.
The Republic reported earlier this year, for example, that only 10 percent of bookings into Maricopa County jails in the last six months of 2007 were subject to holds by the federal Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency. That percentage was based on numbers provided by the Maricopa County Sheriff's Office - numbers that the office later tried to refute.
Tucson Jail Stats By the numbers
43,487: Number of people booked into the Pima County jail in fiscal 2006-07.
$166.08: Cost of the first day of an inmate's jail stay.
$62.79: Cost of every subsequent day of an inmate's stay.
3,162: Number of jail inmates who said they were born outside the U.S. In calendar year 2007
1,211: Number of inmates released to Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) in fiscal 2006-07.
1,852: Number of people in the Pima County jail on Feb. 28, 2008.
10: Percentage of people awaiting trial in the Pima County jail who also have an ICE detainer.
Source: Pima County jail
Arizona's four border counties spent $26.6 million in fiscal 2006 to process criminal undocumented immigrants through their law enforcement and criminal justice systems . Pima County's share was the largest, $15 million.
All 24 border counties - from Cameron County, Texas , to San Diego County, Calif . - spent $192 million to provide these services. The figures are contained in a study just released by the U.S./Mexico Border Counties Coalition and funded by the Department of Justice through the efforts of Sen. Jon Kyl . On a per capita basis, it cost the 1.3 million residents in Yuma, Pima, Santa Cruz and Cochise counties more than $40 in 2006.
These expenditures come out of the counties' general funds, which finance basic services and some discretionary services that enhance the quality of life of citizens and improve economic opportunities. The vital services that counties forgo, as told by governing body members all along the border, include ambulances, after-school programs, jail security, programs for abused children and women, a soccer field, environmental cleanup on the border, health clinics.
In Pima County , the money could have been used for libraries, parks, recreation and revitalizing older neighborhoods.
Moreover, in the eight years from fiscal 1999 through 2006, border counties have cumulatively spent $1.23 billion processing criminal undocumented immigrants . The total for Arizona's border counties was $187.3 million, or $143.55 per person.
The federal government is responsible for all costs associated with illegal immigration, and it has created three reimbursement programs to meet its responsibility. Only one, the State Criminal Alien Assistance Program, benefits counties directly by reimbursing them for the daily costs of incarcerating undocumented immigrants who commit a state felony or multiple misdemeanors. But in 2006, the border counties received just $4.8 million for costs that amounted to $85 million - about 5 cents on the dollar. Arizona's border counties fared better, receiving reimbursements of $1.1 million for costs that totaled $9.4 million, or 11 cents on the dollar.
While comprehensive immigration reform remains elusive, the federal government can fulfill its fiscal responsibility to border counties very simply. It can create a new program that would reimburse border counties fully for the costs of processing undocumented immigrants who commit state felonies and multiple misdemeanors throughout the entire system. This program would reimburse costs for patrol, investigation, detention, clerk of court , prosecution, indigent defense, adjudication, probation and juvenile-court services.
The U.S./Mexico Border Counties Coalition calls this program the Southwest Border County Law Enforcement Program . Identifying a funding source for new programs is never easy, but recent studies have pointed out that the federal government receives more in taxes from undocumented workers than it provides in services - a possible funding source. States and local governments , on the other hand, provide far more services to undocumented immigrants than does the federal government. The biggest gap between taxes and services, arguably, would be found in county governments, where the principal source of revenue is the property tax.
Few, if any, criminal undocumented immigrants own property. Reimbursing border counties for all costs would enable governing bodies to redirect scarce funds to benefit their constituents in very tangible ways. Border counties are, with few exceptions, the poorest counties in the nation.
Tanis J. Salant was the principal investigator for the study, "Undocumented Immigrants in U.S.-Mexico Border Counties: The costs of law enforcement and criminal justice services" . She is a public policy lecturer in the School of Public Administration and Policy of the Eller College of Management at the University of Arizona .
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